General country description
A. First pillar: implementation of CAP reforms (2003)
B. Second pillar: implementation of RDP measures during 2007-2013
C. Vision for the CAP beyond 2013: a short overview of the debate (at Member State level) on future CAP reform
D. Literature, sources, references
The comparative analysis provides a compact overview of CAP implementation across all 27 Member States and their visions of the future of the CAP

General country discription

Comparison with EU-25

Population, 2005 (*1,000,000): 5.2

1.1% of population in EU-25

Population density, 2003 (inh./km2): 17

118 in EU-25

GDP/capita, 2005 (PPS): 26,300

112% of GDP/capita in EU-25

Share agriculture in total employment, 2002 (%): 5

5% in EU-25

Share Utilized Agricultural Area in total land area, 2003 (%): 7

46% in EU-25 in 1998

Average farm size, 2005 (ha): 32

19 in EU-15

Number of farms, 2005 (*1000): 70.0

1.1% of farms in EU-25

Source: own calculations based on Eurostat

Distribution of farming types, 2005 (% of total)

Source: own calculations based on Eurostat

EU funding for the Single Payment Scheme (SPS)
and the second pillar, 2007-2013

* Funding according to CAP budget including Bulgaria and Romania. Sources: Agra Europe (2007); CEU (2006); EC (2007a)


A. First pillar: implementation CAP reform (2003)

A.1 Single Payment Scheme


SPS dynamic hybrid moving to a flat rate model (EC, 2007)

Coupling measures

Complete decoupling, except for sheep and goat premium (50%coupled), special male bovine premium (75% coupled). Article 69 application ( 2.1% of the ceiling for arable crops, 10% of the ceiling for the bovine sector, seeds (timothy seed), dairy premium in 2006.

Reason for selection

No information

A.2 EU budget for Single Payment Scheme (SPS) per year (National ceiling) 2005-2013

Source: 2005: EC (2006); 2006-2013: CEU (2006) and Agra Europe (2007)

Share of the farms that receive SPS of the total number of farms (% of total)

No information

Tradability of SPS

No information

A.3 Cross-compliance: Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC)

(Source: IEEP, 2005;)

Selected standards of the GAEC

Summary of farmers’ obligations

Soil erosion

minimum soil cover

uncultivated cover (>= 60cm) or set-aside (3 m) along waterways; maintain green cover on land no longer in use for production and mow once every growing season.

soil organic matter

arable stubble management

no burning

soil structure

appropriate machinery use

restrictions on wet fields

protection of permanent pastures


Authorization required to convert permanent pasture.

minimum level of maintenance

retention of landscape features

Groups of trees, bushes, rocks in fields must be retained



Prevention of spreading wild oats

Finland focuses on all issues, main concern is landscape and water protection.

Reason for selection of cross compliance standards

No information

A.4 Further reform of market regulations

No information


B. Second pillar: implementation of RDP measures 2007-2013

B.1 Programme level and approval

There is one national strategy for Finland and there are two Rural Development Programmes: one for Mainland Finland and one for the Region of Åland. The Rural Development Committee (consisting of representatives of the 27 Member States) has approved the RDP for Mainland Finland on 20 June 2007 and for the Region of Åland on 20 December 2007.

B.2 Distribution of public budget over the axes (%) 1)


axis 1: competitiveness

axis 2: environment and land management

axis 3: rural economy

Axis 4: Leader

Mainland Finland





1) Figures excluding Technical Assistance
Source: Own calculations based on Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2007)

B.3 Integration of Leader in axes 1, 2 and 3

Axis 4 combines the objectives of Axes 1, 2 and 3 with the methodological approach of the Leader activities.

B.4 Local Action Groups (LAGs)

In the previous programming period (2000-2006) there were 25 LAGs in Finland. In the period 2007-2013 it is intended to create 50-58 LAGs, covering about 300,000-350,000 km2.

B.5 RDP budget 2007-2013 (million euros)


total public budget

% co-financing EAFRD1)

EAFRD budget

Contribution private sector

Total costs

National top-ups

Mainland Finland







Total Finland







1) % of co-financing may vary per axis Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2007)

B.6 Less Favoured Areas

In 2005 2,231,000 ha (100% of UAA) was designed as Less Favoured Areas (LFA) (CEU, 2005).

B.7 Drivers of RDP strategy

Fit within national policy.

The Finnish RDP is written in accordance with Finland's national rural policy (in place since the late 1980s), the National Forest Programme 2010, the Industrial Policy Programme for the Wood Products Industry and the Programme for Promoting Wood Building. The latter three are the national instruments which implement the EU Forest Strategy.


C. Vision on the CAP beyond 2013*

C.1 Stages in the development of the CAP debate

Is there a debate about the CAP beyond 2013?

Yes, there is a debate in Finland among the Ministry of Agriculture, government, parliament members, political parties, farmers' organization, agri-business cooperatives, research institutes and universities.

C2 Key issues in the debate

Components and role of the CAP

Organisation of the CAP (first an second pillar)

Financing of the CAP

D. Literature, sources, references

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